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Finance

Sales by Finance Type by Month
Doc 131m
Leases, Cash and Finance Sales by brand car and truck. Includes monthly and YTD.

FICO

Average Buyers’ FICO
Doc 1985
New, Used; Industry v Retired Military Retail including small business.

Loan to Value Ratio
Doc 1901
Loan to Value Ratio by Prime, Near Prime and Sub-Prime from 2005 to most recent

Used Sales by FICO Score
Doc 1825
Used Sales by FICO Score. From 1995 to most recent

Lessee Fico Scores
Doc 1563
For years 1996 through current.

Buyers Average FICO — National / Miami-Ft. Lauderdale
Doc 1494
Because Florida is among the states in a housing and credit severe crunch, we broke out the Miami-Ft Lauderdale DMA to compare average FICO scores of buyers.

Approval Rates by FICO — Different Cut
Doc 1483
Companion to 1481, the share of auto loan application approvals using the lower prime, near-prime and sub-prime scores.

Sales by Month by FICO — Different Cut
Doc 1481
Shifting “Prime” down to 680 from 720 and also adjusting Near Prime and Sub-Prime, we look at share of sales by month from January 2006.

FICO Scores For Select Brands
Doc 1460
Honda, Toyota, Chevrolet and Ford, the average FICO score of all buyers (finance, lease and cash) plus the share under 670. Three-month report.

Excess Wear and Tear — Leased Vehicles — By FICO Score
Doc 1423
The higher the FICO score, the fewer off-lease vehicles need repairs and those repairs are less extensive.

Car and Truck FICO by Segment
Doc 1422
For each of the market segments and for years 2008 and 2007 through the third quarter, the fico scores of those making an acquisition and the percent change.

New Sales by FICO Score ’07
Doc 1325
Share of new vehicle sales by FICO score including the value of all new vehicles, the share financed including leases, number of vehicles financed, share cash and more.

Average FICO Scores by Brand
Doc 1316
Who has the highest FICO scoring customers? Who the lowest? For cy2007, here are the numbers for brands broken down by cars and trucks.

Repossession Rates
Doc 1312
By region, for years 2000 to present, the repossession rates for new vehicles purchased through any financing source and including all FICO scores. Includes leased and financed vehicles, voluntary and involuntary repossessions. All vehicles, luxury vehicles.

Ethnic Delinquency and FICO Scores
Doc 1232
What is the delinquency rate for Hispanic, African-American, Southern European, Northern European, Asian and Pacific Islanders. Table shows a breakdown of FICO scores and the percentage it represents of maximum FICO; the Odds of Delinquency by these FICO scores and the odds of delinquency by self-identified ethnicity.

FICO Scores for Applying and Receiving New-Car Loan
Doc 1231
A look at the April data showing the FICO score for those applying for an auto loan and the FICO score of those who received the loan. Shows the variance.

Re-Calculation of FICO v CNW Scores
Doc 1142
Translation of FICO scores into CNW’s 100 point scale and letter ratings.

Financial Data — Finance Contracts by Source
Doc 1092
From 1993 through 2005, the share of finance contracts including values for new-vehicle contracts. Includes “A”, “B”, “C” and “D” paper breakdown.

FICO Data 2004 and 2006 EST.
Doc 993
Used vehicle sales by all FICO scores showing unit volume and share of sales.

Originations Sub-Prime
Doc 992
Share and dollar volume of sub-prime originations for new cars (2003 and 2004) as well as used vehicles (2004) broken down by FICO scores representing “subprime”.

Changes in Credit Scores of Car Buyers
Doc 949b
We look at captive and non-captive credit scores by brand for years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004. Includes FICO and CNW credit ratings.

Financed Vehicles — Sub Prime and Prime
Doc 900
Based on two FICO breaks, here’s the dollar amount of new and used vehicle financing for cy2003. Shows the value of vehicles financed and share financed.

Unit Sales by Fico Score
Doc 894a
Companion to Document 900 showing the unit sales by fico score and CNW rating. Shows new vehicles only.

Fico and Delinquency
Doc 531
Comparing CNW’s 100-point scale with FICO scoring as well as showing the likelihood of delinquency for auto loans based on the FICO scores.

 

Sub Prime

Applications and Approvals for Auto Loans

Doc 1435
For years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 through current, the share of loan applications that were approved and the Prime, Near Prime and Sub Prime share of total app’s.

Home Mortgages — Sub Prime
Doc 1224
Home prices have hurt auto sales. Here’s the U.S. and Texas share of Prime, Non-Prime and Sub-Prime home mortgage shares for cy00 through Q1 of ’07.

New-Used Vehicles Sub Prime Market
Doc 1214
A look at new and used sub-prime from 1993 through 2006. Includes new units, new-units financed, financed share of total sales, transaction price financed, Value of financed vehicles, amount financed, % of value financed, % C and D paper of amount financed, share that is sub prime, dollar value of sub prime and similar data for the Used Vehicle segment.

Average Buyers’ FICO
Doc 1985
New, Used; Industry v Retired Military Retail including small business.

Street Motorcycle Financing Sources
Doc 1526
Of those motorcycles that are financed (rather than purchased for cash), the source of the funds. Includes bank, finance company, captive, credit union, home equity loan. Includes BMW, Harley, Honda, Indian, Kawasaki, Suzuki, Victory and Yamaha.

Method of Making Car Payment
Doc 1512
From 1990 through current, cash, credit card, check or online payment of note.

Electric Vehicle Consideration
Doc 1508
From 1996 through current, the consideration of buying an electric road-worthy vehicle such as the Volt. Broken down by those who are “environmentally concerned) and general new-vehicle intenders.

Finance Rejections’ Impact on Sales
Doc 1488
Sales including those rejected finance applications plus other data.

Finance Rejections by Quarter
Doc 1487
Shows monthly data, sales and intenders plus the share rejected.

FICO Scores For Select Brands
Doc 1460
Honda, Toyota, Chevrolet and Ford, the average FICO score of all buyers (finance, lease and cash) plus the share under 670. Three-month report.

Stimulus Bill Impact on Auto Sales
Doc 1454
Excluding any other events, how does the Stimulus bill impact auto sales? We look at pickups, fleets and retail including leasing, finance and cash sales for years 2009 through 2011. Again, this is stimulus-bill specific (See RAS for details.)

Auto Loan Application Approvals
Doc 1409
Quarterly and monthly approval rates for Prime, Near Prime, Sub Prime and Overall.

What Lessees Intend to Do
Doc 1394
With some financial institutions and captive finance companies pulling back from leasing, what are existing lessees planning to do? Broken down by market segment.

Lease or Buy from Same Dealership
Doc 1379
Based on dealer contact time prior to lease or finance contract conclusion, the share who return to the same dealership and buy or lease another new vehicle.

New Sales by FICO Score ’07

Doc 1325
Share of new vehicle sales by FICO score including the value of all new vehicles, the share financed including leases, number of vehicles financed, share cash and more.

Repossession Rates
Doc 1312
By region, for years 2000 to present, the repossession rates for new vehicles purchased through any financing source and including all FICO scores. Includes leased and financed vehicles, voluntary and involuntary repossessions. All vehicles, luxury vehicles.

Haggle Over New-Vehicle Price / Trade-In Value
Doc 1237
How many people haggle over the price of a new vehicle and/or the trade-in value? Here’s the data for finance, cash and lease for years 1995 through 2007 (Q1).

Captive Share of Lease Market
Doc 1226
For all of calendar year 2006, here is the share of the growing lease market that captive finance companies hold. The balance are held by independent lease companies, financial institutions and others. Broken down by brand, car, truck.

New-Used Vehicles Sub Prime Market

Doc 1214
A look at new and used sub-prime from 1993 through 2006. Includes new units, new-units financed, financed share of total sales, transaction price financed, Value of financed vehicles, amount financed, % of value financed, % C and D paper of amount financed, share that is sub prime, dollar value of sub prime and similar data for the Used Vehicle segment.

Dealership’s F&I Share of Financing 
Doc 1166
Of all products financed, the share that were placed through the dealership’s F&I department for GM, Ford DCx, Toyota, Honda and Nissan as well as total Industry.

Dealership Gross Profit by Customer Type
Doc 1151
First a look at the transaction price and gross profit (excluding F&I) for customers who finance, pay cash or lease and then a breakdown by the type of customer (walk in, customer referral, internet prospect, repeat customer, etc.

Trade Cycle and Contract Length
Doc 1132
For years 2001 to present, the average contract length for new financed models, the average contract length and the actual number of months before transfer.

Financing at Dealerships
Doc 1094
The share and units of new vehicles in 2005 financed through a dealership. Incl. leasing.

Private Party Used Sales and Financing Sources
Doc 1035
Covering the first eight months of 2005, we look at the transaction prices, units sold in the private party market, the percentage that were cash and financed, the number and share that went to credit unions, banks and other sources.

Used Vehicle Contract Terminations
Doc 1033
A look at current and historic percentages of finance contracts that are paid off early. Breaks down 1-5, 6-10 and 11-plus year old vehicles.

Financing Activity: New and Used Vehicles 
Doc 1017
A look at direct and indirect auto financing. Includes percent financed; A, B, C, D, breakdown; source of financing (Credit Union, etc.) and other data.

Summary of Cash, Finance and Lease Shares
Doc 955
Covers years 2002, 2003, 2004 and breaks down the data for manufacturers.

August 2004 v July 2004 Lease, Cash, Finance
Doc 911
A quick look and easy format to copy by subscribers showing a current month vs. a previous month share of leasing, financing and cash sales.

Luxury Breakout of Document 489
Doc 904
We look at the preferred trade cycle and actual trade activity for both financed and leased vehicles from 1990 through 2003. Luxury sedans and Luxury SUVs only.

Financed Vehicles — Sub Prime and Prime
Doc 900
Based on two FICO breaks, here’s the dollar amount of new and used vehicle financing for cy2003. Shows the value of vehicles financed and share financed.

Lease, Cash, Finance
Doc 886
A quick synopsis of June 04 vs. June 03 share of lease, cash or financed vehicle sales by car and truck brands. Includes percent change.

Small Pickups — Finance, Lease and Cash
Doc 870
A brief look at one market segment and the share of sales that are leased, financed and cash.

Retail Finance Contracts by Term
Doc 849
From 1990 by length of contract for personal use vehicles financed through captive and non-captive financial institutions. Only includes vehicles that were financed (excl. lease, cash).

Used Vehicle Sales by Finance Source
Doc 840
The percentage of total transfers (with a financial exchange) that were financed, cash and lease for years 1997 through 2003.

Finance Type by State — National, Utah, Colorado, California
Doc 772
Just a sample of this information on a by state and by month basis. Call if you are interested in seeing this as a regular document.

Finance Type by State
Doc 767
Shows 2003; retail leases, cash and financed sales.

Sales by Finance Type
Doc 755
This is for years 2002 and 2001. Addition to Document 439.

Leasing and the Luxury Car Market
Doc 741
Luxury cars have typically been the leading segment when it comes to personal use leases. But zero percent financing has trimmed leasing dramatically even in the luxury car market. Here’s a breakdown by lease, finance and cash sales from 2000 through 2008.

Finance and Insurance (F&I) Demographics
Doc 686
A demographic look at the people who purchase various aftermarket products such as extended warranties, credit life and disability insurance for years 2000 and 2002.

Credit Scores Needed to Get Financing
Doc 673
What does it take to get a finance contract for a new or a used vehicle? We show you what has been going on since cy1993 and the difference between captive and non-captive finance sources. These are based on CNW’s own creditworthiness scoring system.

Long Term Finance Contracts 
Doc 665
61-plus month finance contracts damage brand loyalty, increase delinquency rates and boost both voluntary and involuntary repossessions. Some basic data.

Long Term Contracts by State
Doc 657
With a growing percentage of long-term 61-plus month finance contracts being written, we provide a by-state breakdown of 61-66, 67-plus agreements for cy2002.

Finance Contracts by Term

Doc 656
An updated history of personal-use finance contracts by length of term including the increasingly popular long-length agreements. New and used.

Median Age — Finance Buyers and Primary Drivers

Doc 653
Key brands and the median age of their owners and/or primary drivers for calendar year 2002. Includes data only for those who financed a vehicle, excluding lease or cash buyers.

Vehicle Purchases by Finance Type
Doc 614
How Big Three, Asian and European brands differ in terms of finance type including cash, financed, leased. Covers 1990 through present.

Average Monthly Savings on Auto Refinance

Doc 600
What exactly do consumers who refinance their car loans save on their monthly payment? And how quickly do they take on additional debt offsetting those savings? We also look at debt consolidation loans, savings and additional debt added after the consolidation. All “added debt” figures are adjusted for increases in household income.

New and Used Refinanced
Doc 587
Here’s a quick snapshot of the automotive refinancing business from 2001 including number of units refinanced, average length of refinance contract, monthly payment, etc.

Used Vehicle Transaction Details
Doc 576
Monthly payment for financed and leased used vehicles. Includes average price, down payment amount, amount financed, term and monthly payment.

Off Lease by Brand Details
Doc 570
Document shows sales, leases, retail leases, wholesale leases, retail leases held by captive finance company, wholesales leases held by captive finance company, average monthly turn-ins, percent retained by dealer, units purchased by customers, units remarketed, off lease projections for years 2002 through 2005 by brand, car/truck.

Debt Load — 18 to 24 Year Olds
Doc 566
A treasure trove of information… Shows percent sales (new and used) to youth market; percent leased, financed, cash; source of financing (bank, credit union, captive finance co.) credit score; dollar values for each item.

SUV Male-Female Buyers by Model
Doc 556
What percentage of BMW X series SUVs are sold to women? How about Sequoia? This is the by-model breakdown for cy2001 showing the male and female shares. Data includes all sources, contract types, registration bins and finance methods.

Instant Credit With Spot Delivery
Doc 546
We look at the number of financed units, the percent that are “instant credit checks,” tentative and final approval rates, alternative financing shares and much more.

Internet-related Lease and Finance Follow-up

Doc 545
The impact of using an online “E-zine” to keep in touch with lease customers and the general attitudes about the likelihood this follow-up system has on loyalty to the dealer.

Test Drives
Doc 540
The importance of providing a test drive to walk-in shoppers broken down by years 1999, 2000 and 2001. Also shows if the test drive was perceived as instrumental in vehicle and dealer selection by both those who financed and leased their acquisition.

Pull Forward Caused by Zero Percent Financing
Doc 526
A statistical look at the number of people who purchased a vehicle “early” because of zero-percent financing offers.

Incentive Expectations
Doc 516
This is an important document for auto marketers. It shows what cash, finance and lease new-vehicle shoppers are expecting in terms of “discounts” from MSRP. This can be in the form of low APR, cash back, dealer discounts, higher trade in values, etc. Shows three breakouts: Serious shoppers close to the acquisition point; early tunnel shoppers who are those just beginning their shopping process; Key Market consumers who are not yet shopping for a vehicle.

Contract Placement
Doc 492
Zero percent financing has sent a large percentage of new-vehicle shoppers to the captive finance companies even though most don’t get or take the zero-interest plan.

Source of Retail Installment Contracts

Doc 480
When a customer buys a vehicle, what percentage get their financing through the dealership? From their own credit union or finance company or bank?

Lease Contracts by Source
Doc 471
Share of lease contracts for the years 1990 through 2004 held by captive finance companies, credit unions, banks, independent lease companies and others.

Average Lease/Finance Contract Length by Segment
Doc 460
Shows the length of time finance and lease contracts are written for.

New and Used Vehicle Sales since 1984
Doc 443
Data shows the many ways that used-vehicle sales can be calculated. Includes “All Transfers,” “Transfers with a Financial Exchange,” “Transactions with a Cash or Financed Exchange,” and “Number of Vehicles” transferred.

Sales by Finance Type — History

Doc 439
For the years 1998, 1999 and 2000, here are sales by finance type (cash, lease and financing) by brand (car and truck). Also see Document 755.

Overall Satisfaction Scores

Doc 401
On a 10 point scale, here are the by-brand satisfaction scores for sales, F&I (among lessees and among finance customers), service and two points in vehicle ownership (six and 12 months as well as among finance customers and lease customers).

Reason for Not Using Online Financing
Doc 389
Why there has been a deterioration in the number of people willing to finance their new vehicle on line. Includes those who had a firm online commitment but switched to an off line source.

Defections from Leasing as Payment Gap Closes with Financing

Doc 384
As lease residual values rise, lease payments increase. As finance and other incentives climb, financing payments decline. What happens when the gap closes between the two? About a quarter will move from lease to finance.

Upper End Lease/Finance/Cash Usage
Doc 371
What is the real percentage of high-line car buyers using their own cash to make a vehicle purchase (excluding any loan requiring a repayment such as home equity)?

Big 3 Originations — 1993 to 2003
Doc 341
Shows total sales, captive lease share, lease as percent of total sales, percent financed by the captive, percent cash and captive originations. Shows years 1993 through 2001 (projection).

Payment Thresholds vs. Actual Payments
Doc 322
Lease vs. finance payment thresholds for new vehicle intenders for years 1990-2000. Shows what customer anticipate spending vs. what they actually spent. Shows difference between lease, finance, balloon and cash intenders’ thresholds.

Loyalty Based on Finance Type
Doc 303
Balloon note, lease, conventional finance and cash sales for years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001. Shows the percent of customers who return to the automotive

Begin Replacement Vehicle Search
Doc 302
When do people begin looking for a replacement to their current car or truck? And how is it different between those who lease and those who finance? This document shows both acquisition types by vehicle market segment.

Negative Equity — Amount Rolled Over
Doc 301
Shows the amount of roll over carried from one finance contract to another and the number of payments that amount represents. Broken down by vehicle market segment (such as Full Size SUV).

Lease Loyalty Based on Satisfaction Scores

Doc 300
If a customer is satisfied with a product, how loyal will he or she be to the dealer, automaker and finance company? Shown as a percentage of repeat lessees.

Retention of off-lease vehicles by customer and dealer; % returned to fin. co.
Doc 271
For the years 1994 through 2000 showing the percent of off-lease vehicles that are returned to the finance company or retained by dealer, lessee. By nameplate.

Contract length of off-lease vehicles returned
Also on 271
The original lease contract length of vehicles returned to finance companies for 1997-2000.

New-used vehicles by credit type (A, B, C, D)
Also on 270
This document shows share of A, B, C, D paper from 1993. Includes share dollar value by paper type by year. Data is also broken down by financed, leased, and cash for new buyers/lessees and by franchised and independent dealers for used. Combined figures for franchised and independent used (excl. private party). Share of B and C paper by franchised and independents.

Amount of new and used contracts financed
Also on 270
Includes the amount of total U.S. vehicle sales that are financed, both dollar and vehicle-volume as well as percentage of value.

Supply-demand for two-five year old vehicles
Doc 229
Supply-demand for relatively new used vehicles including off-lease, corporate fleet, conventionally financed, etc. Compares this information against demand for these vehicles by market segment (in millions of units).

Cash Sales
Doc 227
Shows years 1972 through 2000 and the percent of sales that were for cash. Now includes financed as well as leasing shares. This includes cash sales that do not require repayment of any sort such as a home equity loan.

Balloon note basics (companion to 250)
Doc 223
Two page summary shows share of balloon note by new to 10 year old vehicles. Penetration by calendar years 1996, 1998-2001. Average transaction price, balloon note value by segment and total contract length, captive finance share, percent who renew at EOT, creditworthiness of balloon-note user.

Consumer rejection of daily-rental used cars

Doc 192
Consumers who are in the market for a used vehicle say they do not want and will not consider a vehicle that was a daily rental unit. They prefer certified used vehicles, off lease, financed and repos before considering rental.

Sales and Leases by Model for 1998

Doc 186
Each model from each automaker is listed showing both the sales and the personal use leases share. This document also includes the EXCLUSIVE CNW Marketing/Research data on first-time and repeat customer to the brand. For example, it shows that 48 percent of BMW buyers and lessees (combined) never owned a BMW before. This data is broken down by first-time (to the brand) lessees and non-lessees (cash and finance).

Number of 1999 new-vehicle customers by source of previous contract

Doc 148
This is at tough one to explain. In 1999, 17 million people with 2-7 yr old vehicles are seeing an end to the current lease or finance contract. In all, there are about 17.6 million lease and finance contracts ending this year. What percentage of these people will buy another new vehicle?

Balloon Note End-of-Term Actions

Doc 137
Percentage of balloon note users who walk away at EOT, percentage of vehicles returned to finance company with damage; amount of damage; average mileage on balloon note, lease and finance vehicles; repossession rates and more.

Cash buyers

Doc 131
Why do folks pay cash for their new and used vehicles? This document shows the primary source of funds for the vehicle purchase, trade-in value as a share of total acquisition cost; why paid cash rather than financed and if the trade-in was fully paid for. Covers new and used beginning in 1996.

Interest Rates Charged

Doc 119
The new-vehicle interest rates charged by new-car dealerships in 1998 and the first quarter of 1999 (in two-percentage point increments, e.g. 4.1 – 6 percent). ALSO INCLUDES the percentage of finance contracts that are rewritten at a lower rate during the contract period based on credit criteria (A, B, C, D paper).

Off-Lease, Off-Finance, Non-Retail Used Car Summary

Doc 118
This document lists the number of vehicles expected back to market for the years 1994 through most recent. Data includes two, three, four and five year old vehicles which are coming off lease, off finance and non-retail (such as fleet, car rentals, etc.).

Finance Contract Length — New and Used

Doc 110
This document shows the length of finance contracts (excluding leasing and balloon note) for the years 1994 through 2002. The average length of contract, the desired trade in cycle and the percentage of finance contracts written by length of that contract (12-24 months, etc.)

Buy Rate by State
Doc 108
The interest rate charged for new and used vehicles that were financed. Broken down by state and by interest-rate bracket starting at less than 6 percent and increasing by one-percentage-point through 22-plus percent. 1997-2000.

Finance and Lease Downpayment Levels

Doc 107
The percentage of lessees and buyers who made a downpayment for their new vehicle and the amount of that downpayment. Broken down by market segment.

Debt Exposure — New Financed, New Leased, Used by Type of Outlet

Doc 102
Shows the calendar year 1998 data for consumer debt exposure for those who purchased a new or used vehicle. Broken down by “captive,” “finance company,” “banks,” “credit unions,” and other outlets. Shows the consumer’s share of the value of the vehicles.

Used Vehicle Sales Costs 
Doc 99
Cost per unit; average gross per unit; average net per unit; percent sales with trade; percent of inventory from auction; average finance and insurance income

Size of Franchised Dealer Market
Doc 92
Breaks down the total sales of franchised dealerships by new, used, service and warranty and finance departments.

Losses on Leases
Doc 87
Percent of off-lease vehicles that go back to finance company and the average loss.

Financing Intentions by Time Frame

Doc 79
During the months prior to actually acquiring a vehicle, here are the percentage of new- and used-vehicle intenders who say they plan to finance, lease or pay cash for their vehicle. Shows how leasing grows over time while financing declines. For years 1997 through the first half of 1999.

Using the Internet for Lease Follow Up 
Doc 59
Here are the graphs and charts related to lessees’ responses to questions about the Internet being the medium for automaker, dealer or finance company loyalty effort. See LTR/8 for companion analysis.

e-Mail Auto Info Request Delays — Lost Revenue
Doc 53
Here is an extrapolation of the costs associated with delaying a response to a new-vehicle shopper who e-mails an information request to a dealership. Includes losses in finance, new-vehicle margins, used-vehicle (trade) margin, aftermarket product sales.

Finance Share by Source
Doc 52
Share new-vehicle financing and leasing that is held by captive finance companies, banks, credit unions, finance companies and others. This is an UPDATE.

Value of Vehicles Retailed (Excluding Business/Fleet)
Doc 49
Shows the dollar value of vehicles that were retail financed, leased and cash personal-use acquisitions. Both new and used. Total amount financed. Average term and amount of financing “on the books.”

Used Vehicles — Cash, Finance, Lease shares
Doc 43
Covers the past three years and shows the percentage of used vehicle sales that were paid for with cash, financed or leased. Broken down by 2-5 year old, 6-10 year old and over-10 year old vehicles.

Miscellaneous Used Data
Doc 39
Three questions: What’s the average retail value of automobiles coming off of 3-year leases? What’s the average wholesale value of the same vehicles? Of those used-car loans or leases, what percentage are financed at the dealer vs. those who walk in? Broken down by franchised and independent dealerships, 2-5, 6-10 and over-10 year old vehicles.

Vehicle Payments by Ethnic/Gender Groups
Doc 19
Shows differences in interest rate and payment in 1999 for white male, white female, Hispanic male and female, black male and female. Also shows the percentage who use the manufacturer subvented finance programs.

Loyalty Due to Use of Captive Finance Companies
Doc 15
Compares loyalty to an automotive company or division due to use of the captive finance arm vs. non-captives. Also compares industry average for leasing vs. financing (captive vs. non-captive). Includes years 1996-1999.